Kathópanišad (Upanišada Katha) - překlad ze sanskrtu do angličtiny - překlad Radek Tejkal


Ukázka, že starobylé texty není vhodné překládat do "shakespearovské" angličtiny,
jak se to obvykle dělá, ale že současný jazyk je daleko vhodnější a přívětivější.

Kathopanishat 1-1

1
Vajashravasa, who craved heaven and sacrificed all his fortune, had a son Nachiketas.
2
When all the sacrifice gifts were given, faith entered this young man of justice and he thought:
3.
Nachiketas:
Without joy, really, are the worlds, which one enters who gives away such cows that drank all the water, ate all the grass, drained all the milk and are barren.
4
So he asked his father: "Daddy, to whom will I be given?" And he said this twice and thrice. So he answered him: "To Death I shall give you."
5
I am just the first of many, I am just the middle of many; what can Yama do for him, what will he do with me?
6
Look, so it was with the predecessors, look, so it will be with the successors: Like the corn ripens the mortal, like the corn he is born again.
7
Like the fire, enters the house a guest, the Brahman, and it is necessary to satisfy him. Vaivasvata, fetch the water for the foot ablution.
8
Yama:
Hopes and expectations, meetings, delight and merits, sons and cattle; these all are denied to the man of little intellect, in whose house the Brahman dwells without nourishment.
9
Because you dwelled three nights in my house without food, Brahman, being a good guest, I bestow you with honor, Brahman. In order to obtain the bliss myself, choose for three nights three wishes.
10
Nachiketas:
Gautama should be at ease, friendly and without anger towards me; released from you, Death, he should embrace me - this I choose as my first wish.

11
Yama:
It should be like before, with my permission; Audalaki Aruni, disengaged from my commitment, will sleep quietly in the night, without anger, when he sees you again.
12
Nachiketas:
In the celestial world there is no fear, there is no you, and the man is not afraid of aging. In the celestial word a man is joyous, for he has overcome hunger and thirst and is free of grief.
13.
Death, you know the fire reaching to the sky. Tell me, full of confidence, about it. The Celestials enjoy immortality. This I choose as my second wish.
14
Yama:
I, knowing it, can tell you about celestial fire; listen to it, Nachiketas; know this fire, the facility to reach and to support the endless worlds hidden in the cave.
15
Speaker:
And he told him about this fire, which is the origin of the world, and how much and how. And then he responded to him as it was told. And Yama spoke to him again, content.
16.
The satisfied one of the great mind told him: And now, in addition, I will give you a blessing: This fire will bear even your name; and accept this succession of many forms.
17.
The one, who makes the three Nachiketas fires, comes into connection with the three and making three sacrifices conquers both birth and death. Knowing and innerly experiencing the god of fire, the bestowed one, comes to this boundless peace.
18.
The one, who makes the three Nachiketas fires and realizes these three, knowing it, makes the Nachiketas fire, in addition, he throws away the slings of death as well, and free of sorrow, enjoys the celestial world.
19.
Yama:
This is, Nachiketas, your fire, conveying the heaven you have chosen by your second wish. This fire will be named your own. Nachiketas, choose your third wish.

20.
Nachiketas:
There is hesitancy concerning a dead man: ones say he is, others say he is not. Let me know this, taught by yourself. This is my third wish.
21.
Yama:
Even the gods were formerly in doubt, because it is not easy to know. This knowledge is too subtle. Choose, Nachiketas, some other wish, do not force me, free me from this wish.
22.
Nachiketas:
Even the gods were in doubt about this and you, yourself, Death, maintained that it is hard to know. And there is nobody else like you who could speak about this and no other wish could be compared with this one.
23.
Yama:
Choose the sons and grandsons of a hundred years, a great many cattle, elephants and gold, horses, choose a great expanse of land and live as many autumns as you wish.
24.
If you consider this wish to be commensurate, choose affluence and long life. Rule, Nachiketas, the vast land. I make you provider of fruition among of all the fruitions.
25.
Wish according to your will all the pleasures which in the world of mortals are hard to attain - the girls of joy with the chariots and musical instruments, for these are not attainable by men. Let them attend on you, bestowed by myself, Nachiketas, do not inquire about death!
26.
Nachiketas:
It all holds no longer then until tomorrow, god of death, and brings about the aging of the senses to a mortal. The whole life is very short. Keep your chariots and your dances and songs.
27.
The men cannot be nourished by affluence. Should we strive for fortune when we have seen you? We will not live any longer then you behest. That is why I choose the wish I have uttered.
28.
How could the mortal enjoy the very long life, which submits to aging, when he has approached the unaging immortal, when he has been wise and under valuing the allurement of beauty and delight here?

29.
Tell us, god of death, about the great retreat to the world beyond of which nothing is known! Nachiketas chooses henceforth no other wish than this one, which is clouded in mystery.

Kathopanishat 1-2

1.
Yama:
Something else is virtue, something else that is pleasant. Both bind the man in various ways. Fortunate is the one who chooses the virtue of the two; insufficiency falls to the one who chooses what is pleasant.
2.
Both virtue and the pleasant come to the man. The wise man perceives it and discerns. That is why the wise man prefers virtue to the pleasant, but the foolish man, the pleasant, for worldly happiness.
3.
You, Nachiketas, have considered the pleasant and the pleasant looking desires and thrown them away. You have not chosen the way of affluence in which many people drown.
4.
This is known as ignorance and wisdom, both are contradictory and far misdirected. I regard you, Nachiketas, as a man who yearns for wisdom. Many pleasures have not entrapped you.
5.
The ones who stay in ignorance and suppose themselves to be wise scholars, follow the various ways; these fools are the blind led by the blind.
6.
The world beyond does not open to the fool who deviates and is enraptured by the delusion of affluence. The one who believes there is no other world then this one, falls to my power again and again.
7.
There are many who do not hear of it, many who will hear of it, but do not recognize it. Admirable is the one who speaks of it; happier who gains it; admirable is the one who knows it from that happy one.
8.
It cannot be easily recognized, exposed by a humble man. It is contemplated in many ways. It cannot be explained in any other way then the one that is not distinguished from him, for it is lesser then an atom and inaccessible to rational investigation.

9.
This vision cannot be attained by rational investigation, but is most precious, easier to know, when you are told by another; you obtained it, for you really hold to truth. Would I have more such inquirers as you, Nachiketas.
10.
I know affluence is unstable, for the firm cannot be gained by the unfirm. That is why I sacrificed in Nachiketas fire. I gained the eternal from the non-eternal.
11.
Fulfillment of desires, fundamentals of the world, an infinity of sacrifice, another shore without fear, the magnificence of glory, foundations of the fortress, all these you have seen, Nachiketas - and left wisely.
12.
Concentrating on the highest Atman and thinking of the deity rarely seen, entered clandestinely, sheltered in the cave, the most secluded and ancient, the wise man dismisses joys and sorrows.
13.
When the mortal hears, understands, grasps the essence and attains the pleasure, he celebrates to have something to celebrate. I think, the dwelling for Nachiketas stays open.
14.
Nachiketas:
Tell me, can you see something other than the order and the opposition of the order, something other than what is done and not done, something other than what was and what will be.
15.
Yama:
I will tell you completely this word, which is proclaimed by all the vedas, of which all asceticism speaks and for its sake the brahmacharya is performed. This word is "aum".
16.
Even this syllable is the Brahma. Even this syllable is the highest. Who ever knows even this syllable, will have anything he desires.
17.
This is the best support, this is the highest support. Who knows this support flourishes in the Brahma heaven.
18.
He, the wise, is neither born nor dies, he is from nowhere and becomes noone. He, unborn, eternal, before time, immemorial, he does not die when the body dies.

19.
If the one, who kills, thinks that he kills; if the killed one thinks that he is killed; both of them do not know that neither kills or is killed.
20.
Lesser then the least, greater then the greatest, the Atman is hidden in the heart of the living being. The one not striving, free of sorrow, sees the greatness of the Atman through the calm of the senses.
21.
One sits and yet walks far away, lies but goes everywhere. Who besides me could know this god, joyful and joyless?
22.
Who knows, being wise, the huge all penetrating Atman, without body within the body, firm within the unfirm, does not grieve.
23.
This Atman cannot be gained neither through advising nor by apprehension nor by scholarship. Whom it, itself, chooses, can gain it, to him the Atman shows its real image.
24.
Neither the one who abandoned the evil, the one who is restless, who is scattered, as well as the one with a disturbed spirit, can attain it through knowledge.
25.
Who knows, where the one is, for whom the brahmanship and kshatriyaship are only a rice porridge and death is a spice.

Kath.opanishat 1-3

1.
Two souls arrived in the cave at the highest place and consume the fruit of their good deeds. They are called shadow and light by those who know the Brahma, those who keep the five fires, and who lit the three Nachiketas fires.
2.
Should the Nachiketas fire rule the bridge for the maker of the sacrifice, the everliving highest Brahma, the dauntlessness of those who long to cross to the other side.
3.
Know the Atman rides in the carriage, this carriage is the body, and know the brain is the charioteer and the mind is the rein.

4.
The wise man said, the senses are the horses, and their objects are the way. The Atman with brain and mind is called the partaker.
5.
Who is without wisdom, remains with the unrestrained mind and his senses are untamed like bad horses for the charioteer.
6.
Whoever reaches wisdom, remains always with the disciplined mind; his senses are governed like good horses for the charioteer.
7.
The one who does not reach wisdom is ignorant, and always unclean; he will not reach the goal and only gain samsara.
8.
The one who reaches wisdom, is prudent and always clean; he will reach the goal, from which he will never be born again.
9.
The one who is the coachman, who reaches wisdom, he holds the reins of the mind firmly by the hand; he arrives at the end of the way, this Vishnu highest place.
10.
The things are higher then the senses; the mind is higher then the things; the brain is higher then the mind and Atman is much higher then the brain.
11.
Higher then the elements is the unmanifested and higher then the unmanifested is Purusha; there is nothing higher then Purusha; he is the goal and he is the highest way.
12.
Atman is hidden in all beings and is not clearly manifest; the one who sees the subtle-body sees him with the astonishing subtle organ.
13.
The wise man should govern speech and the mind with the spirit of discernment and he should govern knowledge with the great spirit of peace.
14.
Rise up and awaken! attaining everything you wanted to achieve enlightenment. Sharp is the razor's edge; it is difficult to cross over it; this way is hard to pass, say the wise.
15.
Without sound, without touch, without image, undying, and also without taste, eternal and without smell, without beginning and without end, greater then the great and firm - experiencing it the man is delivered from the gorge of death.

16.
The wise man, who listens or tells the story of Nachiketas, that is told by the god of death, and is ancient; will be great in the Brahma world.
17.
The one who tells this highest mystery at the brahman gathering or at the time of ancestral offering, gains infinity, gains infinity.

Kath.opanishat 2-1

1.
The God Brahma broke openings to the outside and henceforth the man looks outside, not inside. Some wise man, longing for immortality, turned his eyes in and saw the Atman.
2.
The foolish who follow worldly desires are drawn into the baited sling of death, but the wise, who know immortality, do not look for the firm among the unfirm.
3.
Through what the man gets to know - shapes, tastes, smells, sounds and joining touches - only through it he gets to know. What remains here? Even this is It.
4.
When the man thinks of Atman as something great and immanent, through which he sees both - the state of dreaming sleep as well as the state of waking.
5.
The one, who knew this Atman, the honey eater, as alive, as near, the lord of the past and future, does not shy of it.
6.
Who saw the one first born of asceticism and then of the water, came into the cave, and dwells there among the elements - even this is It.
7.
This Aditi, who became, along with life, divine, came into the cave and dwells there - she who was born at once with the elements - even this is It.
8.
The fire hidden between two pieces of wood, carefully harbored like the fruit of a pregnant woman, each day should be honored by awakening men with offerings; even this is It.
9.
From where the sun rises and where it sets, there are all the gods gathered - no one can cross it; even this is It.

10.
What is here is also there; what is there is also here. From death to death comes the one who sees distinctions here.
11.
Only through the mind can it be gained; there is no distinction. From death to death walks the one who sees distinctions here.
12.
The person the size of the thumb dwelling inside the soul, not abhoring the Lord of the past and the future; even this is It.
13.
The person the size of the thumb is like a flame without smoke, the Lord of the past and future - is today as tomorrow; even this is It.
14.
Like the water rained on the top of the hill pours down the hillsides in diverse directions, so does the one who sees phenomena as separate, and pursues them in various directions.
15.
Like the clear water poured into the clear, even so becomes the soul of the wise who knows - that is how it becomes, Gautama.

Kath.opanishat 2-2

1.
The city of eleven gates of the unborn man with an undepraved mind - contemplating it, the man does not grieve, and when he is freed, he is free; even this is It.
2.
It is the wild goose in the bright sky; it is the traveler through space, the officiant at the altar, the guest in the house. It is in the person, in the gods, in the order. It is born of the water, of the earth, of the order, of the mountains, it is the great order itself.
3.
It draws the breath up, it drives the breath down. The dwarf sitting in the middle is revered by all the gods.
4.
When the soul dwelling in the body faints and is released from the body, what will remain? Even this is It.
5.
No mortal lives by inhaling and exhaling; they still live by something else upon which the inhale and exhale depends.
6.
Now let me pronounce the secret, the eternal Brahma, and this, that happens to the Atman, when it comes to death, the son of Gotama.
7.
Some reach the womb to incarnate in the body; others enter inanimate objects, according to their deeds and their studies.
8.
This Purusha, waking in the sleeping ones and creating one desire after another, this is the light, this is the Brahma, this is what is called immortal. To him all cling and none cross over it - even this is It.
9.
As the fire entering the world it takes form after form of each form, only the Atman in all creatures takes form after form of each form and is also outside of them.
10.
As only the air entering the world it takes form after form of each form, only the Atman in all creatures takes form after form of each form and is also outside of them.
11.
As the sun, eye of the whole world, it is not blemished by defected outside looks, so there is no fault upon the only Atman inside of all creatures, which multiplies the only seed; they enjoy eternal happiness, not the others.
12.
These wise who see that only agent dwelling in the soul of the inner Atman of all the creatures, which magnifies the only seed; enjoy the eternal happiness, not the others.
14.
Nachiketas:
"So It is" is considered as the undefined highest happiness. How can I sense it? Does it shine by itself or just reflect the light?
15.
Yama:
The sun does not shine here, neither the moon with the stars, even the lightning does not shine, let alone this fire. Everything shines by the reflection of its shine. Everything here reflects only its shine.

Kath.opanishat 2-3

1.
This ancient banyan with the roots upwards and branches downwards, only this is the light. This is the Brahma, only this is called immortal. All the worlds cling to it and no one crosses over it. Even this is It.
2.
The whole world, whatever is created here, moves in life. The great fear, the striking bolt - who knows it becomes immortal.
3.
From fear of it, burns the fire; from fear of it, burns the sun. From fear of it, Indra and Vayu run, and Death, the fifth.
4.
If someone is not able to comprehend it before the decay of the body, then embodiment in the existent worlds will be his share.
5.
As in the mirror, so in the soul; as in the dream, so in the world of fathers. As in the water, so in the world of gandharvas was fully seen as the light and shadow in the world of Brahma.
6.
The wise, who consider that the senses exist detached, and things are detached that begin and end, do not grieve.
7.
Higher then the senses is the mind, higher then the mind is intelligence. Above the intelligence is the great Self, above the great Self is the unmanifested.
8.
Above the unmanifested, the Purusha is higher, immanent and free of any attribute, knowing it, the living being is delivered to immortality.
9.
Invisible is his form, no one can see him with the eyes. Heart yields the understanding; mind, the recognition. The ones who knows it becomes immortal.
10.
When the five cognitive senses along with the thinking stop and the brain does not work, this is called the highest path.
11.
It is considered yoga, firm control of the senses. Then the person becomes awake. For yoga is the beginning as well as the end.
12.
It cannot be found by speech or even by mind or even by eye. How else can it be found but in the words of one who says: It is.
13.
It has to be embraced as it exists and also in its true nature, in both ways. If it is accepted as it exists, its true nature becomes clear.
14.
If all the desires, which entered the heart, are cast away, then the mortal becomes immortal, then one enjoys Brahma.
15.
If all the knots in the heart are cut off, the mortal becomes immortal, so says the teaching.
16.
There are one and a hundred heart channels and one of them comes out of the head. Going through it, the man reaches immortality. The others lead in other directions.
17.
Purusha the size of an inch, the inner Atman, dwells incessantly in the heart of the living beings. It should by force be pulled from the body like the core from the stalks of munja grass. This he should know as the immortal light, this he should know as the immortal light.
18.
When he received the wisdom revealed by the Lord of death as well as the whole method of yoga, Nachiketas reached the Brahma and became free of passions. So everyone who recognizes this highest Brahma, becomes free of death.